What is Machining ?

Introduction

Machining process comes under the subtractive manufacturing process, it is used for prototyping or manufacturing to create different desired shapes and sizes of parts (mainly metal parts), it is done by removing or cutting the part from the workpiece to shape it in a desired shape and size.  Relative motion between the tool and the job is necessary for the operation to be completed.

This process is used for creating different parts, tools, and instruments, it is used when we have to do the mass manufacturing of the products. These machines strategically cut with a very high level of accuracy. In the old days humans were required to do the machining process, but humans have their own limits, and because of that the rate of production is also limited. But now after the third and fourth industrial revolutions, robotics systems are installed by the industries that replace humans, and we know humans have limits robots don’t, so now to do mass manufacturing is at a very high level, and by installing the robotic system in machining also increase the accuracy level of products.

CNC Machining For Ceramics – Applications (Source – 3ERP)

What are Different Types of Machining Process

Conventional Machining Process

Turning

When turning or lathing, a single-edged cutting tool is stationary while the workpiece is rotated on the machine. The cutting tool gently moves parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece to remove material.

Drilling

By spinning a cylindrical tool perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the workpiece, drilling produces a circular hole. The diameter of the tool and the produced hole are equal.

Milling

The removal of material from a workpiece using rotary cutters in a feed motion perpendicular to the rotating axis of the cutting tool is known as milling. One of the most often utilized types of machining nowadays is milling.

Grinding

One of the most precise machine kinds, grinding machines remove material by bringing the workpiece into contact with a revolving abrasive wheel (also known as an abrasive belt or grinding wheel), which subsequently grinds away the undesirable material.

Shaper

The workpiece feeds automatically toward the tool on each return stroke as the shaper machine eliminates material by moving the workpiece in a straight or linear motion in front of an oscillating single-point cutting tool.

Broaching

Using a broach, a cutting tool with teeth, a broaching machine removes material. Each tooth on the broach makes a shortcut along its entire length as it slides against the workpiece, carrying the chip all the way to the part’s end.

Planer

In order to create a straight tool path and remove material, a planer machine functions similarly to a shaper in that it moves the single-point cut tool and workpiece in a straight or linear manner. The main distinction is that longer workpieces can be machined. After each cutting stroke, it automatically feeds into the workpiece while remaining stationary during the cutting stroke.

Cutting process to remove material, and to even out the surfaces (Source – The Crucible)

Non-conventional Machining Process

Electrical-discharge machining (EDM)

EDM eliminates undesirable metal by repeatedly discharging sparks in the space between an electrode and a conductive workpiece. This technique is frequently used to manufacture hard materials and refractory metals, which are challenging to machine using traditional machining techniques.

Electrochemical machining (ECM)

Anodic metal dissolution is used in electrochemical machining (ECM), a technique, to finish the workpiece surfaces. The cathode (-), acting under DC current and in the presence of electrolyte fluid to produce the anodic reaction that removes the workpiece (+) surface material in a precise manner, serves as the machining tool.

Electron-beam machining (EBM)

In the thermal machining method known as electron beam machining (EBM), the material is immediately heated, melted or vaporized using high-velocity electrons focused on a narrow beam. 

Ion beam machining (IBM)

In addition to providing atomically clean surfaces for tools like laser mirrors and changing the thickness of tiny coatings, IBM enables precision machining of almost any material.

Plasma arc machining (PAM)

Plasma arc machining (PAM) is a thermal cutting process that uses a plasma arc to melt and vaporize the material. In PAM, a plasma arc is generated between an electrode and a workpiece, and the high-temperature plasma jet created by the arc melts and vaporizes the material. The plasma jet is directed at the workpiece, and the molten material is removed by a high-velocity gas stream, which also cools the workpiece. PAM is used for cutting and shaping a wide range of materials including metals, ceramics, and composites.

(Source – How Mechanism Works)

Laser machining (LM)

Using a powerful laser beam to melt and vaporize the material, LM is a method for cutting metal or refractory materials. Although the technique is energy-intensive since the material must be heated and vaporized to be removed, laser drilling is used to make minuscule holes in materials that are too tough to handle using conventional methods.

(Source – 3ERP)

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